It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. [187] The story is similar in the Paris Region (Île-de-France): 76.7 percent of enterprises are engaged in commerce and services, and 3.4 percent in industry. [108], Paris has an average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in), and experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout the year. As of 2012[update], around 50% of electricity generated in the Île-de-France comes from cogeneration energy plants located near the outer limits of the region; other energy sources include the Nogent Nuclear Power Plant (35%), trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heat as well), methane gas (5%), hydraulics (1%), solar power (0.1%) and a negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh). Romantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (La Symphonie fantastique), Charles Gounod (Faust), Camille Saint-Saëns (Samson et Delilah), Léo Delibes (Lakmé) and Jules Massenet (Thaïs), among others. For example, after the LGV Méditerranée opened in 2001, air traffic between Paris and Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers in 2000 to 1,502,196 passengers in 2014. normal train and TGV. The Court of Cassation, the highest court in the judicial order, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the Île de la Cité,[134] while the Conseil d'État, which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais-Royal in the 1st arrondissement. He built five new bridges, a new chapel for the College of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the Palais-Cardinal, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII. By the end of the 12th century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France. [225] Poster art also became an important art form in Paris in the late nineteenth century, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Georges de Feure, Henri-Gabriel Ibels, Paul Gavarni and Alphonse Mucha.[225]. Loading... Full Screen . Bordeaux 500 Kilometer. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. The highway that encircles Paris, known as the Périphérique, basically defines the city limits. [76][77], In May 1968, protesting students occupied the Sorbonne and put up barricades in the Latin Quarter. a what is the train chargers from Paris to Lourdes. [275] Most of the major fashion designers have their showrooms along the Avenue Montaigne, between the Champs-Élysées and the Seine. This was an increase of 588 persons since 2018. [62], By 1901, the population of Paris had grown to 2,715,000. [320] One of the newest parks, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013), built on a former highway on the left bank of the Seine between the Pont de l'Alma and the Musée d'Orsay, has floating gardens and gives a view of the city's landmarks. [244] It is also a city of small bookstores. The driving time is approx. Paris averages 1.9 people per residence, a number that has remained constant since the 1980s, but it is much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average. [191], The second-largest business district in terms of employment is La Défense, just west of the city, where many companies installed their offices in the 1990s. 7.9 billion Euros are designated for city administration, and 1.7 billion Euros for investment. Parisian examples of European architecture date back more than a millennium, including the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163), the early Gothic Architecture of the Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144), the Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345), the Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248), the Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) and Les Invalides (1670–1708). [158] Their poor construction quality and their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed to their desertion by those able to move elsewhere and their repopulation by those with more limited possibilities. Modern Paris owes much of its downtown plan and architectural harmony to Napoleon III and his Prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. Keep the card in the slot until you finish your call but, don't forget to retrieve it when you are through. Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city. [174] Note that the immigrants from the Americas and the South Pacific in Paris are vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in these regions of the world. [278], The University of Paris, founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges. In 1931 amateur cyclists were separated from professionals. [310] From then on, the new reservoir system became Paris' principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then on used for the cleaning of Paris' streets. [15], The centre of Paris contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral (now closed for restoration) and the Louvre as well as the Sainte-Chapelle; Les Invalides, where the tomb of Napoleon is located, and the Eiffel Tower are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre. [196], Paris' manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades. Taking a Bus. [256] Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand, as well as Charles Trenet. [206] It ranged from €22,095 in the 19th arrondissement[207] to €82,449 in the 7th arrondissement. Electrical conversion adapters can be purchased before you leave home, or they can be bought when you arrive in Europe. [200], The majority of Paris' salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements. Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing and fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods. Paris offers a bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations,[306] which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips. [300] For the year 2017 it was the 5th busiest airport in the world by international traffic and it is the hub for the nation's flag carrier Air France. The district of the Paris region was renamed "Île-de-France" in 1977, but this abbreviated "Paris region" name is still commonly used today to describe the Île-de-France, and as a vague reference to the entire Paris agglomeration. [232] There are also notable private museums; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne. Education in Paris and the Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions. Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent for the entire Île-de-France): the major part of the city's population is a rent-paying one. [46], Due to the Parisian uprisings during the Fronde civil war, Louis XIV moved his court to a new palace, Versailles, in 1682. The overall climate throughout the year is mild and moderately wet. During the reign of François I, in the Renaissance era, the lute became popular in the French court. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. We use these Google Maps throughout our pages to help you find the Museums,Monuments, Churches and Gardens in Paris: Getting to know this basic layout of the City will make your wanderings in Paris more enjoyable. That said, because of the ocean influence on Paris, a mid-summer downpour is not uncommon. [258], The movie industry was born in Paris when Auguste and Louis Lumière projected the first motion picture for a paying audience at the Grand Café on 28 December 1895. In the 1970s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. [173][verification needed], According to the 2012 French census, 586,163 residents of the City of Paris, or 26.2 percent, and 2,782,834 residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France), or 23.4 percent, were born outside of metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% at the 2007 census). Other than the hill of Montmartre and the Belleville area, the terrain of Paris changes less than the height of a ten story building. After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January 1871. The city's population loss came to a temporary halt at the beginning of the 21st century; the population increased from 2,125,246 in 1999 to 2,240,621 in 2012, before declining again slightly in 2017. The city was not granted municipal autonomy by the National Assembly until 1974. See also a map, estimated flight duration, carbon dioxide emissions and the time difference between Paris and Hong Kong. [78] In 1975, the National Assembly changed the status of Paris to that of other French cities and, on 25 March 1977, Jacques Chirac became the first elected mayor of Paris since 1793. Most of the clubs closed by the early 1960s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll.[253]. That is the number of the arrondissement. In 1793, as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined (executed) in the Reign of Terror, along with more than 16,000 others throughout France. By comparison, London in 1300 had 80,000 inhabitants.[40]. According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometre, ranking among the 10 most densely populated areas of the EU. It's about 22 miles around the Périphérique. See also a map, estimated flight duration, carbon dioxide emissions and the time difference between Atlanta and Paris. The number of deputy mayors in each arrondissement varies depending upon its population. If you want to go by car, the driving distance between Paris and Berlin is 1054.85 km. If you were calling that same number from within France you would, of course, drop the international code and the country code of "33", replacing it with a "0" and dial 01-55-55-55-55. [315] Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden (created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace and redone by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672)[316] and the Luxembourg Garden, for the Luxembourg Palace, built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the Senate. Paris is the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its limits: commonly referred to as the agglomération Parisienne, and statistically as a unité urbaine (a measure of urban area), the Paris agglomeration's 2017 population of 10,784,830[168] made it the largest urban area in the European Union. [67] In the years after the war, known as Les Années Folles, Paris continued to be a mecca for writers, musicians and artists from around the world, including Ernest Hemingway, Igor Stravinsky, James Joyce, Josephine Baker, Eva Kotchever, Henry Miller, Anaïs Nin, Sidney Bechet[68] Allen Ginsberg[69] and the surrealist Salvador Dalí. [18] Alternatively, Pierre-Yves Lambert proposed to translate Parisii as the 'spear people', by connecting the first element to the Old Irish carr 'spear', derived from an earlier *kwar-sā. [329] It is the largest hospital system in Europe. It reached 2.25 million in 2011. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. [161], A further 103,648 in the City of Paris and in 412,114 in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth. The number of city employees increased from 40,000 in 2001 to 55,000 in 2018. Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido, on the Champs-Élysées, opened in 1946; and the Crazy Horse Saloon, featuring strip-tease, dance and magic, opened in 1951. The Distance Calculator can find distance between any two cities or locations available in The World Clock. You can also see the distance in miles and km below the map. [179] According to a 2011 survey by the IFOP, a French public opinion research organisation, 61 percent of residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves as Roman Catholic. [132], France's highest courts are located in Paris. [282] There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement. The first railway line to Paris opened in 1837, beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city. Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt, Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology.[191]. Use the Distance calculator given below to find distance between any two cities or places. [122], The Métropole du Grand Paris, or simply Grand Paris, formally came into existence on 1 January 2016. [201] Fourteen percent of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals. Paris occupies a central position in the rich agricultural region known as the Paris Basin, and it constitutes one of eight départements of the Île-de-France administrative region. You will see permutations of this map all over the city. This fast, modern and luxurious train will get you to your destination in just under 3 hours and 20 minutes. For example, the 1st arrondissement postal code is 75001, the 3rd is 75003, the 15th is 75015 and so on. The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced the first permanent photograph on a polished pewter plate in Paris in 1825. After the marshland between the river Seine and its slower 'dead arm' to its north was filled in around the 10th century,[36] Paris' cultural centre began to move to the Right Bank. The upper house, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement, while the more important lower house, the Assemblée Nationale, meets in the Palais Bourbon in the 7th arrondissement. [196] In 2011, while only 56,927 construction workers worked in Paris itself,[202] its metropolitan area employed 246,639,[200] in an activity centred largely on the Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378)[203] and Hauts-de-Seine (37,303)[204] departments and the new business-park centres appearing there. [159], The Paris agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th-century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. [47] Other marks of his reign were the Collège des Quatre-Nations, the Place Vendôme, the Place des Victoires, and Les Invalides. Of foreign visitors, the greatest number came from the United States (2.6 million), United Kingdom (1.2 million), Germany (981 thousand) and China (711 thousand). [266], Today, due to Paris' cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9,000 restaurants. There are normally 2 trains per day travelling from London to Paris and tickets for this journey start from $75.35 when you book in advance. Paris and its region host the headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Paris Club, the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the European Union Institute for Security Studies, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Exhibition Bureau, and the International Federation for Human Rights. [91] On 13 November of the same year, a series of coordinated bomb and gunfire terrorist attacks in Paris and Saint-Denis, claimed by ISIL,[92] killed 130 people and injured more than 350. That is the meaning of the "0" in parentheses. Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include the Centre Georges Pompidou by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano (1977), the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie by various architects (1986), the Arab World Institute by Jean Nouvel (1987), the Louvre Pyramid by I. M. Pei (1989) and the Opéra Bastille by Carlos Ott (1989). [317] The Jardin des plantes was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants.[318]. INSEE – Unemployment by region and department, first trimester of 2018 (Provisional figures) (retrieved 31 July 2018), Taxable income by "consumption unit" as defined by INSEE, see, TEA-AECOM Theme Index 2017: Amusement Parks Worldwide, Paris Tourism Key Figures 2018; Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLester2006 (, Place de la Grève (Place de l'Hôtel de Ville), a series of coordinated bomb and gunfire terrorist attacks in Paris and Saint-Denis, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, European Union Institute for Security Studies, International Bureau of Weights and Measures, International Federation for Human Rights, List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, European Securities and Markets Authority, Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, École des hautes études en sciences sociales, National Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris, 5th busiest airport in the world by international traffic, List of twin towns and sister cities in France, International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts, "INSEE official estimated population by department and region as of 1 January 2019", "Dossier complet − Unité urbaine de Paris (00851)", "Dossier complet − Aire urbaine de Paris (001)", Singapour, Hong Kong, Paris : le trio des villes les plus chères du monde, "Revealed: The world's most expensive (and cheapest) cities for 2018", "List: The world's 20 busiest airports (2017)", "ACI reveals the world's busiest passenger and cargo airports", "The 51 busiest train stations in the world – all but 6 located in Japan", "9,6 millions de visiteurs au Louvre en 2019", "Art's Most Popular: here are 2019's most visited shows and museums", "Important Destinations for the Beat Generation", "France remembers Algerian massacre 50 years on", "Les berges de Seine rendues aux Parisiens", "Sarko's €35bn rail plan for a 'Greater Paris, "€26.5bn Grand Paris metro expansion programme confirmed", "French Court Sentences 2 for Role in 1995 Bombings That Killed 8", "Attentats terroristes : les questions que vous nous avez le plus posées", "Les politiques s'affichent à la marche républicaine", "Islamic State claims Paris attacks that killed 127", "Terror attacks timeline: From Paris and Brussels terror to most recent attacks in Europe", "Paris Orly airport attacker was 'radicalised Muslim, "Paris shooting: Marine Le Pen calls for all French terror suspects to be expelled after Champs Elysees attack", "Car rams police van on Champs-Elysees, armed suspect dead", "Visiting Paris in the Winter: A Complete Guide", "Weather in France – Climate and Temperatures of French Cities", "42.6 °C à Paris : record absolu de chaleur battu ! 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