Cherry-picking of data is bad science. Thus, the reference genome in humans is the sum total of one complete set of 23 chromosomes. [xiv] N. Archidiacono, C.T. The figures given in the article are correct. If humans and chimps are so similar, then why can’t we interchange body parts with chimps? They also share more than 50 percent of their DNA with insects, such as fruit flies, and fruit, such as bananas. Many of these lncRNA genes play important roles in a process called epigenetics. As CMI says any superficial similarities point to a common designer, not a common mythological ancestor. Another useful question asks, “How could only 1–2% DNA difference account for such major body differences between humans and chimps, like thousands of new genes, different hand, muscle and brain architecture, and the 40 facial muscles that humans use to communicate, compared with the dozen or so in chimp faces?”. [xiii] The human Y chromosome almost completely misaligns with chimpanzees. Secondly, apes use very limited verbal communication—they cannot write articles or even sentences. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are sandy-furred, pink-faced monkeys that live in the region ranging from Afghanistan to northern India, as well as southern China, and are traditionally held as sacred in Hinduism. [xxxii] E. Wijaya, M.C. To put this number into perspective, a typical 8½ x 11-inch page of text has about 4,000 letters and spaces. ! However, since the insertions can be more than one nucleotide long, about 40 million total separate mutation events would be required to separate the two species. Wells, “Origin of Human Chromosome 2: An Ancestral Telomere-telomere Fusion,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88 (1991): 9051–9055. The fusion site lies inside what they originally labeled a pseudogene. If we are genetically related to chimps, some may conclude that humans should behave like animals, with no fear of divine justice. Chimpanzees share about 98.8 percent of the same DNA as you, according to Popular Science, but you'd probably be surprised to learn that your genetic similarities to both elephants and mice are in 80-something range. In doing so, the authors claim to have discovered that humans lost 40.7 million DNA letters in the process of evolution from the common ancestor of humans and the great apes. It turns out, of course, that this gene serves a helpful function in cells. Equipping youth pastors, parents, and students with Biblical answers for evolutionary teaching in public schools. Why does Science perpetuate the myth in 2012? Correct me if I am wrong but wouldn't it take 20 Bible sized books to type out a 1% difference since the human genome has 3,000 million base pairs, i.e. Even these high similarity areas actually have only about 86% of matching sequences overall when the algorithm used to analyze them is set to produce a very long sequence match.[xxxi]. This supposedly explains why both of them have the same supposedly broken genes, called pseudogenes. Genome Research. To organize 3 billion bases, researchers use unique DNA sequences as reference markers. A child that sees a chimpanzee can immediately tell that it is radically different from a human. The series lays a vital foundation for understanding both the world around us, and the Gospel itself. When scientists talk about a creature’s genome, they refer to one set of chromosomes. Across 15% of their genetic code, or genome, gorillas are closer to humans than chimpanzees. No wonder junk DNA advocates grow quiet. Women only have 45 out of the 46 chromosomes that men do.   If you could type 60 words per minute, eight hours a day, it would take approximately 50 years to type the human genome. According to the latest data, there are 3,096,649,726 base pairs in the human genome and 3,309,577,922 base pairs in the chimpanzee genome. Protein-coding gene regions called “exons” in humans are on average only about 86% to 87% similar to chimps. Keep up the good work of setting the record straight. Because it contains human sequences, it appears more human than the chimp genome in fact is. These differences alone put the total number of DNA differences at about 125 million. Lun, Z. R, “Pseudogenes are not Pseudo Any More,” RNA Biology 9 (2012): 27–32. [v] Does this issue matter?   You share 98.7% of your DNA in common with chimpanzees and bonobos. DNA is a fragile molecule. A carpenter makes both chairs and tables with four legs. When it comes to insects' DNA , humans have a bit less in common. Chaos would reign. Gibbons, A., Bonobos join chimps as closest human relatives. The original 1% claim goes back to 1975.2 This was a long time before a direct comparison of the individual ‘letters’ (base pairs) of human and chimp DNA was possible—the first draft of the human DNA was not published until 2001 and for the chimp it was 2005. Humans and … [xxxix] S. Djebali, et al. The human genome has about 3,000 million ‘letters’. Because this is a phrase that we often hear that humans, we share 99% or 99.9% of our genes with each other. [xxii] At least one lab that helped to assemble the chimp sequence admitted that they inserted chimp DNA sequences into the human genome layout based on evolution. So, many creatures and humans can tolerate a damaged GULO gene by consuming plenty of vegetables with vitamin C. The GULO gene region and the mutations that likely damaged it link to a system that use transposable elements. Wiki User Answered . Regulating the number, rate, and placement of bricks is even more important than just having bricks. Below, we will go over a few of them. For example, in a 2012 report on the sequencing of the other chimpanzee species, the bonobo: And this was not from some disreputable source, but from the publishers of Science, published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. long) that explore the biblical and scientific truths of the Bible’s opening chapters. At this point, there have been only a few isolated examples of genes that are functionally present in chimpanzees but not in humans, and vice versa. It stands to reason that God, in His desire to create diverse life forms on Earth, would begin with the same building materials, such as DNA, carbohydrates, fats, and protein, when making various animal kinds. In 2011, Dr. Tompkins compared 40,000 chimp DNA sequences (after removing them from the human-genome scaffold bias) that were about 740 bases long and already known to be highly similar to human. Cohen, J., Relative differences: the myth of 1%. It needs to be refuted if it’s not true. [xli] How do they know this happened? Consequently, over a million RNA varieties can be made from 30,000 or fewer genes! Since we share common ancestry with chimpanzees, it is understandable we have certain similarities. Domesticated cattle share about 80% of their genes with humans, according to a 2009 report in the journal Science. Humans and chimpanzees have differences in bone structures, in brain types, and in other major parts of their physiology. [xv] More research has left no doubt that a specific set of genetic programming exists for humans and another specific set exists for chimps. For this reason, most genetics studies assume this relationship before they even begin analyzing DNA. We also see this principle in nature—such as many plants and animals sharing Fibonacci or similar spirals with clear algorithms and sequences as building patterns. As new genomes of different kinds of organisms are being sequenced, they consistently show unique sets of DNA containing many genes and other sequences that specify that type of creature. What of the 97% (or 98% or 99%!) The cell exports special RNAs called lncRNAs outside of the cell. In their analysis, scientists from 35 institutions compared this melded assembly to the reference sequence of the human genome, a newer unpublished draft sequence of the chimp genome, the sequence of more than a dozen other more distant species already in the public databases, the human HapMap, and the Human Gene Mutation Database that lists known human mutations that lead to … It stands for “Long, Non-Coding RNA’s.” Whoever named them didn’t bother to actually check whether or not they coded for any useful product. 17:1675–1689 (www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/25335-Percentage-of-genetic-similarity-between-humans-and-animals). Later that Day, God made a single man in His own image, and He gave him an everlasting spirit or soul (Genesis 2:7). A secular report independently found the same level of dissimilarity, again nailing the coffin on top of the false 98% claims.[xxviii]. Be it the difference from Chimpies and humans' DNA 1% or 10% or whatever. While this sounds like a lot, it still represents slightly less than 1% of the genome. But men and women have 46 chromosomes, and of those 46 we only share 45. 1-844-7-GENESIS (844-743-6374) | staff@genesisapologetics.com. The original definition of a gene describes it as a DNA section that produces a messenger RNA which in turn codes for a protein. [xxxii] We now know that each of these protein-coding genes can produce many different individual messenger RNA variants due to gene regulation strategies. They simply perform the same task in the two different organisms. The DNA sequence that can be directly compared between the two genomes is almost 99 percent identical. Our common ancestor had a gene that mutated. Beginning at around 2005, research from different labs all over the world has documented that cells transcribe and use over 90% of the entire human genome. But men and women have 46 chromosomes, and of those 46 we only share 45. Chimpanzees are genetically closest to humans, and in fact, chimpanzees share about 98.6% of our DNA. Genomic monkey business—estimates of nearly identical human-chimp DNA similarity re-evaluated using omitted data. These are for example only. Could someone please give me the source for this facts? Their story sounds sensible at first. Many evolutionary studies compared only highly similar protein-coding regions, the lncRNA regions are only about 67 to 76% similar—about 10 to 20% less identical than the protein-coding regions. The Genesis Academy: A 12-part teaching series on Genesis 1–11, The Bible declares: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Point 1 – Overall, the entire genome is only about 84.4% similar on average when you include all the DNA. Humans share 60% of genes with fruit flies, and 2/3 of those genes are known to be involved in cancer. How can you use the information in this section in conversation? The myth of similarity has been used to support the claim that humans have no special place in the world and even that chimps should be granted human rights.10. ~8% of the human genome is composed of ERVs (and their relatives the LTR retrotransposons), which would be 240 million bp (8% of 3 billion bp). At the protein level, 29 percent of genes code for the same amino sequences in chimps and humans. Monkeys share about 93% of their DNA with us, and the other apes (greater and lesser) share somewhere between 95-99% of their DNA with us. At this point in the conversation, you will rapidly find out if the person is really interested in learning more about the issue of human origins, or if they are so zealous about evolutionary beliefs that they refuse to listen to challenging evidence. Sometimes, though, they splice themselves into the wrong location and disrupt genes. Also, the other genes in the GULO biochemical pathway produce proteins that aid other important cellular processes. One of the great trophies that evolutionists parade to prove human evolution from some common ape ancestor is the assertion that human and chimp DNA are 98 to 99% similar. Many proteins are very similar across a wide range of species, so comparing only protein-coding DNA tends to artificially accentuate similarity. Biologists have discovered through research on biological molecules that humans and the African apes have a common ancestor, who lived some 6-7 million years ago. We also both play, have complex emotions and intelligence, and a very similar physical makeup. Compared to chimps, humans are about 38% taller, are 80% heavier, live 50% longer, and have brains that are about 400% larger (1330 ccs compared to 330 ccs). This amounts to a 6.4% difference. Every high school student can refute 98% similarity dogma by tracking the main points above as outlined below. The genome is a very complex system of genetic codes, many of which are repeated in organisms with similar functions. Or it could make only 10 phones a year. Histones, which are involved in chromosome structure, and osteocalcin, which is a bone protein, are almost identical across many creatures. Fibonacci Number Sequence. One day a co-worker came to me and informed me that chimp/human story was proof of evolution, which he believed. Losing those could spell disaster for the organism. After junk DNA became entrenched in textbooks, scientists began testing the 95% to see if cells use it for something other than protein codes. Thus, common function, not common ancestry, gives the reason for their similar (and quite useful) sequence. If the creation narrative from the Bible is true, we would expect exactly what we see in today’s ape-kinds. Figure 2. In fact, it is hard to compare the two genomes because of radical differences in arrangement. But the similarities we share go beyond our genetic makeup. Each chromosome set contains over 3 billion base pairs. Other RNAs exit the nucleus to help regulate with the quality and speed of production, or the final shape and placement of other RNAs or proteins. Frith, P. Horton & K. Asai, “Finding Protein-coding Genes through Human Polymorphisms,” PloS one 8 (2013). 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